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Challenges and Resolutions for Human Rights : The Case of Religious Minorities in Pakistan

Munawar Inayat Maseeh (Lala Munawar, Sungkonghoe University MAINS)

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This thesis aims to analyze the situation of the Religious Minorities of Pakistan by looking at the violation of their basic human rights established under the United Nations Declaration and other International standard of Human Rights. Pakistan is signatory of ICCPR, but the constitution of the Isl...
This thesis aims to analyze the situation of the Religious Minorities of Pakistan by looking at the violation of their basic human rights established under the United Nations Declaration and other International standard of Human Rights. Pakistan is signatory of ICCPR, but the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is discriminatory towards religious minorities. It is provided in the law that all the citizen of the treaty is not equal before the law. Chapter 1 is about the background and aims of the thesis whereas the chapter 2 describes the brief introduction of the Religious Minorities of Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Chapter 3 presents briefly constitutional discrimination of the Religious minorities in terms of how the State through discriminatory laws has made religious minorities’ second-class citizens and chapter 4 explores the living situation of the Religious Minorities who have been victims of certain discriminatory laws and policies.
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Table of Contents
Chapter 1: Introduction and Background of the Study 1
1.Introduction 1
...
Table of Contents
Chapter 1: Introduction and Background of the Study 1
1.Introduction 1
2.The Research Problem, Objective and Question 2
3.Theoretical frameworks 4
4.Research Methodology 8
Chapter II: A Brief History and profile of Religious Minorities in Pakistan 9
2.1 Population of Religious Minorities 9
2.2.1 Christians 11
2.2.2 Hindus and scheduled caste 12
2.2.3 Ahmadies 13
2.2.4 Sikhs 15
2.2.5 Parsis 16
2.2.6 Bahis 16
2.2.7 Kalash 17
2.3 Conclusion 17
Chapter III: Pakistan’s Constitutions, Minorities and Exclusion 19
3.1 The Constitution of Pakistan and Religious Minorities 20
3.2 Quaid’s vision The August 11 speech 21
3.3 Constitutional Discrimination Exclusion from 1973 Constitution 21
3.4 Fundamental Rights and Constitution of Pakistan 23
3.4.1 The Blasphemy Law 24
3.4.2 Complete version of Blasphemy law sections 26
3.4.3 Law of Evidence (Qanoon-e-Shahadat) 28
3.4.4 Blood Money (Qisas-o-Diyat) 28
3.5 Educational discrimination 28
3.6 Discrimination in Government 31
3.6.1 Oaths of High offices 37
3.7 Other discriminatory laws 37
3.8 Conclusion 38
Chapter IV: The Current Situation of Religious Minorities in Pakistan 38
4.1 Discriminatory Policy of the Government 38
4.2 Socio-Economic Conditions 40
4.3 Communal Riots 41
4.4 Socio-Political Discrimination & Religious Intolerance 44
4.5 Question of Survival 45
4.6 Conclusion 46
Chapter V: Reflection and Conclusion 47
5.1 Challenges 48
5.2 Recommendation 51