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Refugees in Non-signatory State: Focusing on the case of Pakistan

Shahnawaz (SungKongHoe University)

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Refugees and asylum seekers are the most vulnerable population on the earth, who cross international borders due to human rights abuse and conflict in their country of origin. It is almost common among refugees that they desired to enjoy their basic human rights and good life. Majority of people fl...
Refugees and asylum seekers are the most vulnerable population on the earth, who cross international borders due to human rights abuse and conflict in their country of origin. It is almost common among refugees that they desired to enjoy their basic human rights and good life. Majority of people flee from their state of origin with these desired and face brutal abuses and persecution in their way. From the World War I to World War II, from cold war to the internal conflict in the aftermath of cold war, the occupation of Iraq and Afghanistan, from the violence in the context of war on terror and Arab spring, the common men always left their homes and seek protection. Refugees are in a situation where their own states are unable or unwilling to guarantee their physical safety and basic rights. These conditions force them to flee from their state and seek protection from international community. In response to these conditions, the international community developed two significant international laws to protect refugees and provide them basic human rights so that they could enjoy their freedom. Though refugee issue is not a simple issue but it is highly complex because it is integrated with the political and security concerns. The protection of refugees is the mandate of UN refugee agency names as the United Nation High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), which was founded in the aftermaths of WWII to manage the issue huge refugee population. However, in order to protect the refugees’ rights the UNHCR needs the support of international community and host nation. Different situations demand different solutions, so, international community and host nation’s always respond according to the nature of war and conflict. Some states and international community protect refugees, when their own interests are at stake like Afghanistan etc. On the other hand, some do not allow refugees to cross the border and at time these state risk the life of asylum seekers, like Rohingya. As we know that, currently developing countries are hosting the major part of the refugee population around the globe. These countries are already facing financial crisis and have bad human right records. Thus, this is an effort made to sort out diverse challenges of large refugee population and their impact on Pakistan, having a long history in managing refugees. This study will also provide extensive information on refugees’ presence and their impact on the developing countries, like Pakistan.
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Table of Contents
Acknowledgment i
Dedication ii
...
Table of Contents
Acknowledgment i
Dedication ii
List of Abbreviations iii
List of Tables iv
Chapter - I 1
Introduction 1
1: Introduction: 1
2: Background of study: 2
3: The Objective of the study: 3
4: Research Methodology: 3
Table: 1 Summary of key respondent Focused Group Discussion (FGD) 5
5: Review of existing literature: 5
Chapter - II 12
Historical Background: Refugees in Pakistan 12
2.1: Who is Refugee? 12
2.2: How to define Asylum seekers 12
2.3: Refugees and Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) 12
2.4: The 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees 12
2.5: The 1967 protocol relating to the status of refugees 13
2.6: Historical background of Refugees in Pakistan 13
2.7: Refugees and asylum seekers in Pakistan 14
2.8: Urban Refugees in Pakistan 16
2.9: Afghan Refugees in Pakistan 17
2.10: Organized camps of Afghan refugees in Pakistan 17
2.11: Historical role of UNHCR regarding Refugees in Pakistan 18
2.12: Summary: 19
Chapter- III 20
Impact of Refugees on host community of Pakistan 20
3.1: Socio impact of refugees on host community 20
3.2: Economic impacts of Refugees on host community 22
3.3: Health impacts of Refugees on host community 25
3.4: Refugees impact on Environment 26
3.5: Refugees impact on security 27
3.6: Religious radicalization in Refugees and its impact on host population 29
3.7: Refugees and Pakistan law enforcement agencies 31
3.8: Public administration of Pakistan and registration of Refugees 32
3.9: Summary 32
Social and Economic issues of Refugees in Pakistan 34
4.1: Socio-economic issues of Refugees in Pakistan 34
4.1.1: Refugees and the Right to livelihood 34
4.1.2: Refugees and the Right to Education 35
4.1.3: Refugees and the Right to Health 36
4.1.4: Refugees and WATSAN 37
4.1.5: Refugees and Shelter 38
4.1.6: Child Refugees and Child protection issue 38
4.1.7: Women Refugees issues 39
4.1.8: Youth Refugees and education and employment issue 40
4.1.9: Refugees and Legal assistance 41
4.2: Summary 43
Chapter - V 44
Durable Solution for Refugees in Pakistan 44
5.1: Repatriation of Refugees 44
5.2: Resettlement of Refugees 45
5.3: Local Integration of Refugees 45
5.4: Refugees Status determinations (RSD) 46
5.5: Role of UNHCR about durable solution of Refugees in Pakistan 46
5.5.1: Refugees repatriation to Afghanistan 47
5.5.2: Push and Pull factors affecting the repatriation of Refugees 47
5.5.3: Role of Government of Pakistan in the Repatriation of Refugees 48
5.5.4: Role of Government of Afghanistan in the Repatriation of Refugees 49
5.5.5: Resettlement of Refugees 49
5.5.6: Local Integration of Refugees in Pakistan 50
5.5.7: Overall hurdle in durable solution for Refugees in Pakistan 51
5.5.8: Overall number of Refugees who have benefited from the durable solution 52
5.6: Summary 52
Chapter - VI 53
Conclusion and Recommendations 53
6.1: Conclusion 53
6.2: Recommendation 54
Bibliography 60
Appendix 73
Appendix 1: Questionnaire for Focused Group Discussion (FGD) 73
Appendix 2: Pakistan hosts the highest number of refugees worldwide 75
Appendix 3: Map indicating the location of refugee camps in Pakistan & Afghanistan 76
Appendix 4: Pakistan refugee camps map 77
Copyright Agreement 78
Declaration of Ethical Conduct in Research 79